This past week has seen some unedifying academic-on-academic hostility on Twitter, with a storm of haughty criticism being whipped up in response to publication in the journal Alternatives of a paper by Dr David A. Hughes. Perhaps because I know first hand what it feels like to be publicly smeared for touching on inconvenient questions, I have felt impelled to speak out against this intimidatory conduct.
Hughes’ paper tackles a taboo subject, one which has been at the centre of a great deal of conspiracy theorizing, much of it preposterous. What he nevertheless aims to show is that there are also reasonable questions to be asked about the subject; and he wants to understand why these have been lumped together with the foolish ones in a blanket dismissal by other scholars in the field of International Relations (IR).
The paper having undergone peer review and been published, it is now encountering public condemnation from a number of academics via their Twitter accounts. We see the makings here of a campaign to have the paper retracted or the editorial team censured.
Such conduct from professional colleagues requires an exceptional justification. For them to seek to overturn the result of peer review is tantamount to a vote of no confidence in the professionalism of colleagues who were involved in it. Very good reasons ought to be provided for such serious censure.
Scientists and scholars rely on the system of peer review – whose functioning itself depends on the good will and good faith of colleagues – to ensure that publications in their fields of expertise reach certain standards of methodological rigour and substantive significance. They do not assume that publication following peer review is an unequivocal endorsement of everything the paper claims. Once any article is published, it is quite likely to be subject to criticism, if it is of any interest at all, since the advance of learning inherently involves debate.
So peer review is a valuable process, but it is not an infallible guide to the quality of a publication above a certain threshold, and it does not provide the last word on the worth of a publication. I doubt there is any academic who could not point to some paper or other that, in their view, does not meet the threshold and so ought not to have been published. It is another matter, however, for a case to be made for seeking retraction of a published paper. Such a case would normally be grounded in provable claims of academic fraud of some kind.
It is normal, then, for academics to live with the existence of publications they disagree with or disapprove of. This is not an unalloyed burden, either, since such publications also provide convenient opportunities for academics to exhibit their own superior learning through their critical responses.
What has been more unusual until now is for outcomes of peer review to be challenged in public fora. Of course, before the advent of social media, there would have been little opportunity to do so. But now, papers that strike a nerve with disapproving readers can encounter public challenge via instantaneous reactions on platforms like Twitter.
Some of the responses to Hughes’s paper have expressed dissatisfaction at the publication in relatively measured terms. For instance, Dr Nicholas Kitchen, a lecturer in International Relations at Surrey University posted several tweets, which included these:
Disagreeing with editors’ decisions is not uncommon, I think, but to go on to publicly denounce a colleague’s work in this way is quite another matter. Although Kitchen adds such a damning comment, he has not pointed to any specifics in the paper that warrant such opprobrium.
This lack of specificity, in fact, is a common feature of the attack tweets. An influential example is this Tweet from Professor Brendan Nyhan of Dartmouth College:
Other academics challenged the editorial board to retract or resign. See, for instance, this thread from Dr Emmett Macfarlane, associate professor in Political Science at the University of Waterloo.
The response by Dr Jennifer Mustapha, an Assistant Professor in Political Science at Huron University College, illustrates Hughes’s point that “critical” IR scholars have no time for the kind of uncomfortable questions he highlights.
Indeed, a further tweet from Macfarlane went so far as to call Hughes’s article the ‘antithesis of academic scholarship’. Thinking myself that this was a harsh judgement to make of any professional colleague, particularly when no grounds for it had been demonstrated, I intervened with a request that Macfarlane suggest better readings. In response he simply blocked me!
In the meantime, the journal’s editor had been alerted to the Twitter discussions and had issued a response, which Kitchen cites:
The quip added by Professor Alex Bellamy of the University of Queensland captures the tenor of many of the comments inserted by others into these twitter conversations.
A more aggressive intervention came from Dr Nour Halabi, a Lecturer in Media and Communication at the University of Leeds, with her proposal to boycott the publisher unless it bowed to the pressure of the complainants about this ‘truther’ and ‘conspiracy theorist’:
My view is that the approach of these academics on Twitter is indefensible. They smear the author and the paper while seeking to intimidate the publisher and send a public message that this topic ought to remain off-limits to any critical inquiry. The fact that the paper is seeking to reflect on how that taboo comes to be maintained is scarcely commented on by the critics. Those few who do mention it make a general complaint about this not being the right way to go about it – but without indicating what would be the right way. (A helpful recommendation is offered, though, by Roland Bleiker of a piece he co-authored with Tim Aistrope on Conspiracy and Foreign Policy, as a more subtle treatment.) I am not suggesting Hughes’ paper could not have been improved in any way, but I am concerned that none of the attacks on it has identified any specific scholarly defect, let alone anything close to the kind of fraudulence that would warrant retraction.
Certainly, raising questions about the circumstances of the destruction of the three World Trade Centre buildings in 2001 leads into very uncomfortable and disturbing areas of speculation, and reasons to avoid doing so are compelling – certainly pragmatically and psychologically. Such influential dissenters as Noam Chomsky have supported the position that such questions are better not asked, with even Julian Assange apparently saying “I’m constantly annoyed that people are distracted by false conspiracies such as 9/11, when all around we provide evidence of real conspiracies, for war or mass financial fraud.” This is surely an efficacious salve for the critical conscience of many of us. I wonder, indeed, what cognitive condition the vitriolic responses to a humble journal article by so many critical thinkers might betoken.
More humdrum questions about whether Hughes’s paper should have been published exactly as is are open to reasonable disagreement. But since it has now been peer reviewed and published, criticism should be made in appropriately academic terms, and not those of the playground bully, which some academics seem to feel themselves licensed to do on Twitter.
Regarding the substance of the paper, since I have not researched the topic myself, my comments will be limited to a few very general points.
- The terrible events of 11 September 2001 had not been pre-announced publicly and were not carried out by one person alone: by definition, therefore, they involved a conspiracy.
- The authorized version of events accordingly, and unavoidably, includes a theory of a conspiracy as a core part of its explanation.
- The authorized conspiracy theory has been questioned in a variety of ways, as Hughes’s literature review indicates.
- Many of those questions are not foolish or trivial, but quite reasonably posed in the light of evidence assembled.
- Therefore, while the authorized account might be true, to question it is not irrational or shameful. Indeed, following John Stuart Mill, one might emphasise how constantly reviewing the grounds of accepted truths can help keep them vivid.
- Furthermore, a theory can be true in parts and still be improved upon, especially when it relates to a complex event, and a fuller account of the truth can be attained by continuing rational research into questions that can sensibly be posed.
- Therefore to pursue those questions is not only justified but can be seen to be part of the scholarly community’s collective obligation.
If the IR community has not given much scholarly attention to those questions, then it seems to me that Hughes is right to suggest that they, and the reasons for the silence, are worth devoting a few journal pages to. Accordingly, in my view, the editor of Alternatives was right to put the submission out for review and then to accept the advice of the reviewers. Since their recommendation was to publish the article, any criticism of it now should be made in the way that academic criticisms normally and properly are.
Trying to shame the publisher into retracting the paper is not the way to uphold academic standards.
As for trying to shame a scholar who has the courage to engage in what the “critical” scholars seem merely to pay lip service to – namely, an attempt to speak truth to power – the academics in question ought, in my view, to be offering apologies. Hughes is well aware why it is that those relatively few ‘academics who have spoken out have tended to be emeritus or retired professors with little to lose career-wise’. It is because in virtue of doing so they can ‘expect to find themselves subjected to a media smear campaign as part of a coordinated effort to discredit them.’ Such attacks on a scholar’s reputation can be very damaging for younger academics with future prospects to put in jeopardy. So in standing firm in full awareness of all this, Hughes has responded with integrity to the pull of an intellectual obligation he feels to undertake academic due diligence regarding assumptions about a defining historical event of our epoch.
I would like to invite readers to share below their comments on either this post or Hughes’s paper. Naturally, I expect them to be respectful. (Any anonymous smears or abusiveness will be excluded during moderation.)
Academically, The 3000 plus Architects & Engineers have already won! 9/11 is America’s hidden Holocaust! Will the world war against America over this unspeakable truth? Is it a useful truth? Is it better left swept under the rug? Is our post 9/11 dystopia really that bad, Will it get worse? 9/11 truce or truth?
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Tim H: one which has been at the centre of a great deal of conspiracy theorizing, much of it preposterous.
There is none so preposterous as that of the US governments’ official conspiracy theory about Osama bin Laden and 19 Muslim hijackers. Bin Laden was not involved at all and if there were Muslims on board all they were were patsies.
Rabbi Dov Zakheim dual citizen with a foreign nuclear country somehow was allowed to be the Pentagon Comptroller on 911. Rumsfeld came on TV and told the world Zakheim was being investigated for losing 2.3 trillion national def. tax dollars. The next day on 911 that office investigating this was blown up. The FBI label for the Pentagon attack is Pentbomb. officially. Zakheim had a sidejob: C.E.O. of Systems Planning Corp who manufactures the Remote-Control-Flight-Termination-Systems on those jets. Our top national security codes demand only 100% U.S. Citizenship for all U.S.govt position. Only one country is allowed to violate this important loyalty security code. We fund it 12 million dollars a day. Dual Citizen with this same country was Larry Silverstein who’d just aquired the leasehold on the WTC and when he did took out 2 massive insurance policies ‘ in case they were destroyed by terrorists”. He won 2.3 Billion on each of the two towers, and he said about WTC 7 ” We decided to ‘ pull-it”. These are facts folks, not theory. Triangulate them please and start caring. First responders are still dying horribly and those 911 criminals did not just blow up N.Y and go away! No sir they are governing ever since. It was a coup- a take over and with the media brainwashing Americans into war after war with Muslim countries you can see the False Flag is sure was.
Chief Oreo Palmer made it to the point of impact in the north tower 87 story climb. He was an amazing athlete and very brave. He saw people who saw him! He was below above and at the fire. He radio’d down. ” There are two isolated pockets of fire, we can knock it out with two hand-lines… Roger that”.. But the criminals heard that transmission and could not let the two isolated pockets of fire be put out as that would destroy their excuse for the collapse of the tower, so they pressed the detonator button. Ask Fire Commissioner Christopher Gioia who was there, his Franklin Sq & Munson Fire District outside of Queens just passed a Resolution demanding the use of explosives be investigated for the destruction of the 3 WTCenter buildings, 1,12 & 7. And they signed on to the petition for a Grand Jury filed by the non-profit law firm The Lawyers’ Committee for 911 Inquiry ( LCfor911.org) with a Constitutional demand that the 57 exhibits be presented to a Special Federal Grand Jury. Over 150 first responders officially reported explosions and molten steel ” like lava”. Nano thermite was confirmed in the dust by three independent testings. The WTC was pulverized to dust, not burnt. Over 1500 people were never accounted for not even DNA. The pile stayed extremely hot until mid December, what does that? Nano-thermite could. Now the first responders are dead and dying from massive cancers and were told the air was safe to breath. Wake up people, Newton’s laws were not suspended on 911. Have courage to seek the real truth and challenge your World View. Please.
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Dr Hughes raised excellent points which any moral person, let alone those committed to academic honesty, should pause to reflect and consider seriously. Good to see Mr Hayward provide a defense both on twitter and in long form. The vitriol ad hominem attacks is conduct unbecoming and dishonorable of academia. They bring academia into disrepute. It is a scene one would expect in the darkest days of Nazi Germany. Not in a liberal pluralist Western society in 2020. These academics clearly don’t believe in academic freedom – to say the least. It is as if they took nothing from Dr Hughes paper whatsoever.
When is it Ever better to not ask questions?
asking questions is the very definition of science and academics.
Not asking questions is an embrace of dogma.
You nailed ‘er, Dan. That, the silence, not asking questions about 9/11 and about many other western nations war crimes, etc has always puzzled me no end. I was just thinking about this very thing a few moments ago walking in from the corrals. Why aren’t there even any books/academics/university classes dedicated to the USGOCT describing all the events of this momentous occasion, how the “failure of imagination” allowed this to happen. Thinking people, people not afraid to think know exactly why.
If I may intercede Terry, … it is the same mentality that many men having trouble passing their water , suffer for an intolerable length of time before consulting an Urologist for a diagnosis. It is a protective feature of the thought processes that … if I do not acknowledge I have a problem it will simply go away. They will often INSIST there is nothing wrong even after being told repeatedly by their partner that they DO HAVE A PROBLEM. It is difficult for many academia who have at least a rudimentary knowledge of, .. for instance the Laws of Physics to ignore these even when it is blatantly obvious. Possible Cancer of the Prostate is just too difficult for many men to accept, as is the fact that their government is capable of the False Flag of 9/11. Academia, Medical Professionals. Scientists are men/women too and are NOT above these human defensive postures when the truth is too difficult for the individual to accept.
Is it only a coincidence that no English dictionary in the entire world [the list from ONELOOK Dictionary Search] has yet to provide an entry for ? I asked a major US dictionary [unnamed for now] why there was no entry for even though the word/material has/had been around for close to a 1/4 century and they said they had included it with the word . Which was then a lie and still, over a year later, remains a lie.
Why would anyone want to keep such a fabulous US Military Labs’ discovery a secret? Randy Simpson, one of the lead scientists, seemed quite proud of their discovery, calling it “a new generation of super explosives”.
Having been a Explosives Expert for over 40 years before retiring, … I am/was quite knowledgeable about Thermite. It has been around for years. The introduction of Nano Thermite was not understood nor realized until the discovery of Niels Harrit University of Copenhagen, Denmark of the multitude of tiny red and white microscopic particles in 9/11 dust samples and which DETONATED on being heated. It was well known that the 9/11 dust contained billions of microscopic iron spheres ( a by product of a thermitic reaction ). It was not until the discovery of nano grade thermite that the pieces of the puzzle came together and since ONLY the USA, ISRAEL, RUSSIA and CHINA ( possibly ) but the others definitely possessed this new explosive that the FALSE FLAG of 9/11 was irrefutable.
Why has the word nanothermite and thermite been deleted from my post, above?
My apologies, double post: I had put angle brackets around the words thermite and nanothermite in my post above, repeated here. Is this what caused them to disappear?
Is it only a coincidence that no English dictionary in the entire world [the list from ONELOOK Dictionary Search] has yet to provide an entry for nanothermite? I asked a major US dictionary [unnamed for now] why they had no entry for nanothermite even though the word/material has/had been around for close to a 1/4 century and they said they had included it with the word thermite. Which was then a lie and still, over a year later, remains a lie. It is NOT listed under the word entry ‘thermite’.
Why would anyone want to keep such a fabulous US Military Labs’ discovery a secret? Randy Simpson, one of the lead scientists, seemed quite proud of their discovery, calling it “a new generation of super explosives”.
The reason Nano thermite is not mentioned in ANY Dictionary is the FACT that 60 % of all Major Media outlets in the USA and one might say the WORLD are Jewish owned. That Sir is why since Israel is known by those in the intelligence field to have been part of the FALSE FLAG.
Peter B. Collins Post-Retirement Special: 20 Years On, 9/11 Coverup Is Holding Firm, Protected By Gatekeepers in Government, Media and Academia
Despite the evident failures of foreign and domestic policy triggered by the events of 9/11, disprovable myths of the official … Continue reading Post-Retirement Special: 20 Years On, 9/11 Coverup Is Holding Firm, Protected By Gatekeepers in Government, Media and Academia
It is interesting, that the CBC ( Canadian Broadcasting Corporation ) … I hate Acronyms … in a 5th Estate Documentary aired not long ago ALMOST come out and admitted The Kennedy Assassination of 1963 was carried out NOT by Lee Harvey Oswald, … but rather by the Military Industrial Complex, with the co-operation of the CIA. It has taken ALMOST 60 years for a GOVERNMENT ( Canadian ) owned Media outlet to publicly state, what was obvious from at least
40 years ago. Of course in a span of 57 years, … all the Principal Players in this Coup d’Etat are now DEAD ( go figure ).
Although, anyone ( with any intelligence ) knows that 9/11 was a FALSE FLAG, yet once again perpetrated by the US Military Industrial Complex, the CIA and for sure the Israelis. The PRINCIPALS being Israel, George Bush Jr. , Donald Rumsfeld, Dick Cheney, Colin Powell ( now in hell ) being the one exception as well as Senior members of the CIA are all STILL alive and free. Even with ALL THE SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE AVAILABLE , many Academics, Governments ( especially the USA ), the Media outlets, WILL NEVER ADMIT THE TRUTH. This TRUTH will not be forthcoming for at least 25 years from now, when most or all the PRINCIPALS are dead and can no longer be prosecuted for the War Crimes of GENOCIDE and DISPLACEMENT of MILLIONS of people, not to mention the advancement of EXTINCTION of LIFE on our Planet. Such is the state of our so called DEMOCRACIES !
teachjap btw, is it correct to assume that you ARE Terry Byrne? THANX for the quick and considered response / clarification! I now see what your main point is: that EMPHASIS being placed on the characterization of US foreign relations as those of a “war-criminal” nation MIGHT be a more effective (short-term) teaching tool for the previously unconvinced.
A bit of my personal/political history. 1965 (my 3rd year in 4-year high school): I attended my very first (of what would become, eventually, literally hundreds of) peace-justice demonstrations. It was a Pro-Palestinian / Anti-Zionist one – and, as the typically brain-washed 15 year-old US-ian that I was, I went there to oppose them. The organizers convinced me that I had things completely backwards (mostly due to the simple historical fact that the state of Israel was killing 100+ times as many Palestinians as they were killing Jews – any force capable of that kind of a one-sided slaughter, HAS TO BE an evil one. I’ve been a heavy-duty supporter of the Palestinians (and opponent of Zionism) ever since – some 56 years!
But, it was during the hours immediately AFTER the presentations that I really got my first real political education. This Anti-Vietnam-War Movement activist spent a couple of hours with me; and she convinced me that not only was the US 100% in the wrong there; but that this was not due to any would-be “mis-informed” US President or leadership – it was conscious and inevitable, because it was US monopoly-capitalism / U.S. IMPERIALISM. (The absolute brutality / mass genocide that she documented that the US was committing there just scandalized / shocked me completely – curing me of my “peace-love” hippie nature on the spot).
That evening, reflecting on that afternoon, I became an Anti-War activist – eventually (between 1965 and 1975) dedicating over 20,000 hours of voluntary work to help stop that slaughter of 2-3 million innocents by “my” government. I’ve remained quite active in such causes ever since; including the 9/11 Truth Movement. (see my website and it OP post for “my”: so-called “9/11 Truth UNITY Manifesto”, titled, “End ALL The Wars & Police States, NOW!”)
imo, one of, if not THE, most important negative lessons I/we learned (or should have learned) about our activism amongst the masses is that: while we DID make a small but significant contribution to the Vietnamese liberation forces’ victory (as they themselves acknowledged) – because we didn’t emphasize the IMPERIALIST NATURE of the U.S., despite all our massive efforts, the moment that war was over “the 2-3 million revolutionaries in the U.S.” (as reported by Newsweek magazine – the leading newsweekly in the US at that time) – those progressives were essentially lost (vis-a-vis perhaps 99+% of them never returning to activism against further US wars of aggression).
Thus, my big concern for the need to, yes, use the word Imperialism when describing US foreign relations.
P.S. I agree with all your points about just how rapacious (#1) the U.S. has been.
The United States of America was founded in 1776. It is now 2021. Since their founding 245 years ago, the USA has been at WAR for 226 of those 245 years. Astonishing, but nevertheless TRUE. Most of those almost incalculable number of WARS were WARS of AGGRESSION or EXPANSION ( Imperialism ) and since WWII to fuel their Military Industrial Complex ( the backbone of their economy ). The USA along with their cohort Israel have caused more suffering and death than ANY OTHER COUNTRY IN THE WORLD since WWII and both countries continue to do so.
When I first started reading this, “The United States of America was founded …” I THOUGHT it was something I, Pablo, had written/posted – because, except for the one phrase, “along with their cohort Israel”, I’ve posted virtually THIS POST EVERYWHERE for YEARS!
btw, I’ve been a heavy-duty supporter of the Palestinians and opponent of Zionism since 1965 – 56 years! But, I consider Israel to be just a Junior Partner of the US imperialists; one of DOZENS of Junior Partners – and NOT the most evil of them by a long shot.
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I posted a DOCUMENTARY on YouTube several years ago ( 1hr. 20 minutes in length ) outlining not only how the 3 Towers in New York, USA were taken down ( I was a Professional Demolitions Expert for over 40 years as well as a Licensed Aircraft Pilot ). I also spilled the beans on who was responsible and why. I used to cross the US / Canada Border at least twice a week on business, UNTIL one day about 10 years ago I was warned by a couple of US Customs Officers ( personal friends ) that if I crossed again, I might well never return to Canada. Certain members of the US Government had an interest in me. I NEVER crossed again. My DOCUMENTARY was subsequently ( I assume ordered buried ) in Documentaries about 9/11 and most people could simply not find it to watch. EXACTLY one week before the 20th Anniversary of 9/11, YouTube completely DELETED my Documentary and banned me from posting or commenting on anything they produced. Such is the corruptness and censorship of the US of A.
I had written previously to our Prime Minister of Canada and asked him why nothing was done to expose the murder of not only 24 Canadians on 9/11, but why Canada simply ignored the deaths of so many others as well, and the ensuing WARS caused by the USA and Israel as a result of this FALSE FLAG event blamed on foreign terrorists. He replied but completely ignored my question and had his then EXTERNAL AFFAIRS MINISTER, one Chrystia Freeland ignore the question for him. I wrote her back and basically VERBALLY shot her down. These letter are in my file and free for the reading, … all I need is a self stamped envelope.
I also was contacted by the ” Lawyers Committee for 9/11 Truth ” in New York and asked to not only write up a detailed description of how the buildings were taken down ( which I did ) but later to examine dozens of unpublished photographs of steel from the buildings for SIGNS of THERMAL cutting of steel. I found plenty. All of this done very cloak in dagger as they felt everything they said or I said over the Internet or by phone was being monitored.
It was actually they who suggested I do a 9/11 DOCUMENTARY, as the more people who saw it the less likely, … I would be discovered dead in a single vehicle accident or as an unsuspected SUICIDE. In other words questions would be raised.
I took my evidence to a couple of foreign VIP’s in European Secret Services, but although good personal friends, they declined to comment.
No, Pablo, … I am NOT a friend of ZIONISTS nor of Great Britain for even allowing the JEWS to take up land in PALESTINE in 1948. IMAGINE, giving away land you do not own … BRITISH GALL ! I am not a fan of most countries who totally ignore both the USA, ISRAEAL, SAUDIA ARABIA , CANADA, AUSTRALIA, the UK as well as other lesser players who pander to the Israelis & Americans and their big stick diplomacy ! I disagree with you, as to whom, ( the USA or Israel ) is the worst. Israel thru JEWISH ownership and / or control of 80 % of US Major Corporations and 60 % of all Major Media Outlets CONTROLLS THE USA, … like it or not !
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I agree that there should be no taboo areas for proper scientific enquiry to establish the truth.
The problem for lay people like myself is finding reliable sources of information on important public interest issues, often involving powerful vested interests. As information and it’s manipulation has increasingly become weaponised to serve these various interests, especially within the main stream media, this problem has been only been exacerbated.
I received notification of Tim McCord’s comment because I had previously left a comment on this page and checked the box requesting notification of new comments be sent to my email address.
OBVIOUSLY MY COMMENT HAS BEEN DELETED!
THIS FACT IS A GLARING EXAMPLE OF WHY THE WORLD AT LARGE REMAINS IN THE DARK AND THE RULING ZIO-FASCIST ELITE NOT ONLY CONTROL, BUT DICTATE THE NARRATIVE ON EVERY SUBSTANTIVE TOPIC ON THE PLANET!
In this specific case the facts indicate that it is israel’s finger prints (as is so often the case when it comes to Syria and Iran) that were all over the original “reports”. Based on the irrefutable physical evidence presented on the scene that was broadcast by the media worldwide at the time, the claims of “gas” being used by the Syrian government (or anyone else), let alone against it’s own people is an easily and readily demonstrable lie. (I spent a little time in the US Army in a 74D slot…)
Until, unless the global crackdown on freedom of speech on all public access forums, our educational systems, etc. are stopped, the common man will slowly but surely continue to be manipulated, exploited, controlled and as we see today, exterminated by the millions via a multitude of methods targeting our food, water, medicine etc.
Unimaginable death and suffering at the hands of things like Chem trails, genetically modified foods, microwaves, radiation and of late the Vaccine bio-weapons are slowly but surely euthanizing the planet. At this point people should be truly terrified that those efforts have been massively increased over the last decade. Such is the power of controlling virtually all forms of communication that they are able to continue with what amount to global mass murder essentially unimpeded by anyone.
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